Metal cutting theory and practice

David A. Stephenson, John S. Agapiou

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Contents Preface to the Third Edition............................................................xv Preface to the Second Edition..........................................................xvii Preface to the First Edition...........................................................xŁL Authors................................................................................xxi Chapter 1 Introduction.................................................................I 1.1 Scope of the Subject..................................................1 1.2 Historical Development................................................I 1.2.1 Ancient and Medieval Predecessors..............................1 1.2.2 Canon Boring...................................................4 1.2.3 The Industrial Revolution and the Steam Engine.................7 1.2.4 Nineteenth-Century Quantity Production Industries.............10 1.2.5 Early Scientific Studies......................................15 1.2.6 Twentieth-Century Mass Production.............................17 1.2.7 Numerical Control.............................................20 References.................................................................22 Chapter 2 Metal-Cutting Operations....................................................27 2.1 Introduction.........................................................27 2.2 Turning..............................................................27 2.2.1 Hard Turning.................................................,29 2.3 Boring...........................................................,...30 2.4 Drilling........................................................... 31 2.4.1 Deep-Hole Drilling............................................34 2.4.2 Microdrilling.................................................37 2.5 Reaming..............................................................37 2.6 Milling..............................................................37 2.7 Planing and Shaping..................................................44 2.8 Broaching............................................................45 2.9 Tapping and Threading................................................46 2.10 Grinding and Related Abrasive Processes..............................56 2.11 Roller Burnishing....................................................64 2.12 Deburring............................................................65 2.13 Examples.............................................................66 2.14 Problems.............................................................78 References................................................................80— Chapter 3 Machine Tools...............................................................83 3.1 Introduction.........................................................83 3.2 Production Machine Tools.............................................83 3.3 CNC Machine Tools and CNC-Based Manufacturing Systems................88 3.3.1 General.......................................................88 3.3.2 Types of CNC Machines.........................................89 3.3.3 CNC-Based Manufacturing Systems...............................99 v Contents 3.4 Machine Tool Structures..............................................108 3.5 Slides and Guideways.................................................119 3.6 Axis Drives..........................................................122 3.7 Spindles.............................................................127 3.8 Coolant Systems......................................................141 3.9 Tool Changing Systems................................................142 3.10 Pallets..............................................................145 3.11 Energy Use in CNC-Machining Centers..................................146 3.12 Examples.............................................................147 References.................................................................150 hapter 4 Cutting Tools................................................................159 4.1 Introduction.........................................................159 4.2 Cutting-Tool Materials...............................................159 4.2.1 Introduction.................................................159 4.2.2 Material Properties..........................................159 4.2.2.1 High-Speed Steel (HSS) and Related Materials.........163 4.2.2.2 Sintered Tungsten Carbide (WC).......................164 4.2.2.3 Cermets..............................................166 4.2.2.4 Ceramics.............................................167 4.2.2.5 Polycrystalline Tools................................169 4.2.2.6 Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride (PCBN)...........170 4.2.2.7 Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD)........................171 4.3 Tool Coatings........................................................172 4.3.1 Coating Methods..............................................172 4.3.2 Conventional Coating Materials...............................174 4.3.3 Diamond and CBN Coatings.....................................177 4.4 Basic Types of Cutting Tools.........................................178 4.5 Turning Tools........................................................179 4.5.1 Indexable Inserts............................................179 4.5.2 Groove Geometry (Chip Breaker)...............................183 4.5.3 Edge Preparations............................................183 4.5.4 Wiper Geometry...............................................185 4.5.5 Insert Clamping Methods......................................185 4.5.6 Tool Angles..................................................186 4.5.7 Thread Turning Tools.........................................187 4.5.8 Grooving and Cutoff Tools....................................188 4.5.9 Form Tools...................................................189 4.6 Boring Tools.........................................................190 4.6.1 Single Point Boring Tools....................................190 4.6.2 Multipoint Boring Tools......................................196 4.7 Milling Tools........................................................196 4.7.1 Types of Milling Cutters.....................................197 4.7.2 Cutter Design................................................200 4.7.3 Milling Inserts and Edge Clamping Methods....................208 4.8 Drilling Tools.......................................................209 4.8.1 Twist Drill Structural Properties............................211 4.8.2 Twist Drill Point Geometries.................................214 4.8.3 Spade and Indexable Drills...................................223 4.8.4 Subland and Step Drills......................................227 4.8.5 Multi-Tip (Deep Hole) Drills.................................228 4.8.6 Other Types of Drills........................................233 4.8.7 Chip Removal.................................................234 4.8.8 Drill Life and Accuracy......................................237 4.8.9 Hole Deburring Tools.........................................239 4.9 Reamers..............................................................242 4.9.1 Types of Reamers.............................................243 4.9.2 Reamer Geometry..............................................244 4.10 Threading Tools......................................................246 4.10.1 Taps.........................................................246 4.10.2 Thread Mills.................................................253 4.11 Grinding Wheels......................................................255 4.11.1 Abrasives....................................................255 4.11.2 Bonds........................................................257 4.11.3 Wheel Grades and Grit Sizes..................................257 4.11.4 Operational Factors..........................................259 4.12 Microsizing and Honing Tools.........................................260 4.13 Burnishing Tools.....................................................263 4.14 Examples.............................................................263 4.15 Problems.............................................................274 References.................................................................275 Chapter 5 Toolholders and Workholders...................................................281 5.1 Introduction.........................................................281 5.2 Toolholding Systems..................................................281 5.2.1 General......................................................281 5.2.2 Modular and Quick-Change Toolholding Systems.................284 5.3 Toolholder/Spindle Connections.......................................290 5.3.1 General......................................................290 5.3.2 Conventional Tapered "CAT-V" Connection......................295 5.3.3 Face-Contact CAT-V Interfaces................................303 5.3.4 HSK Interface................................................309 5.3.5 Proprietary Interfaces.......................................314 5.3.6 Quick-Change Interfaces (Toolholders/Adapters)...............316 5.3.7 Toolholders for Turning Machines.............................322 5.3.8 Evaluation and Comparison of Toolholder/Spindle Interface....323 5.4 Cutting Tool Clamping Systems........................................328 5.4.1 Milling Cutter Drives........................................328 5.4.2 Side-Lock-Type Chucks........................................330 5.4.3 Collet Chucks................................................331 5.4.4 Hydraulic Chucks.............................................336 5.4.5 Milling Chucks...............................................338 5.4.6 Shrink-Fit Chucks............................................339 5.4.7 Proprietary Chucks...........................................341 5.4.8 Tapping Attachments..........................................344 5.4.9 Reaming Attachments..........................................345 5.4.10 Comparison of Cutting Tool Clamping Systems..................345 5.5 Balancing Requirements for Toolholders...............................358 viii Contents 5.6 Fixtures..........................................................362 5.6.1 General....................................................362 5.6.2 Types of Fixtures..........................................364 5.6.3 Fixture Analysis...........................................370 5.7 Examples..........................................................373 5.8 Problems..........................................................387 References...............................................................387 Chapter 6 Mechanics of Cutting......................................................393 6.1 Introduction......................................................393 6.2 Measurement of Cutting Forces and Chip Thickness..................393 6.3 Force Components..................................................395 6.4 Empirical Force Models............................................401 6.5 Specific Cutting Power............................................402 6.6 Chip Formation and Primary Plastic Deformation....................404 6.7 Tool-Chip Friction and Secondary Deformation......................412 6.8 Shear Plane and Slip-Line Theories for Continuous Chip Formation..416 6.9 Shear Plane Models for Oblique Cutting............................420 6.10 Shear Zone Models.................................................422 6.11 Minimum Work and Uniqueness Assumptions...........................425 6.12 Finite Element Models.............................................426 6.13 Discontinuous Chip Formation......................................431 6.14 Built-Up Edge Formation...........................................434 6.15 Examples..........................................................436 6.16 Problems..........................................................438 References...............................................................439 Chapter 7 Cutting Temperatures......................................................449 7.1 Introduction......................................................449 7.2 Measurement of Cutting Temperatures...............................449 7.2.1 Tool-Work Thermocouple Method and Related Techniques.......449 7.2.2 Conventional Thermocouple Methods..........................453 7.2.3 Metallurgical Methods......................................454 7.2.4 Infrared Methods...........................................454 7.2.5 Other Methods..............................................456 7.3 Factors Affecting Cutting Temperatures............................456 7.4 Analytical Models for Steady-State Temperatures...................457 7.5 Finite Element and Other Numerical Models.........................463 7.6 Temperatures in Interrupted Cutting...............................467 7.7 Temperatures in Drilling..........................................469 7.8 Thermal Expansion.................................................471 7.9 Examples..........................................................472 7.10 Problem...........................................................476 References...............................................................476 Chapter 8 Machining Process Analysis................................................483 8.1 I ntroduction.....................................................483 8.2 Turning...........................................................484 8.3 Boring............................................................486 Contents ix 8.4 Milling............................................................487 8.4.1 Face Milling..............................................489 8.4.2 End Milling...............................................490 8.4.3 Ball End Milling..........................................494 8.5 Drilling...........................................................494 8.6 Force Equations and Baseline Data..................................502 8.7 Process Simulation Application Examples............................507 8.8 Finite Element Analysis for Clamping, Fixturing, and Workpiece Distortion Applications...........................................512 8.9 Finite Element Application Examples................................514 8.10 Examples...........................................................519 8.11 Problems...........................................................524 References................................................................525 Chapter 9 Tool Wear and Tool Life....................................................529 9.1 Introduction.......................................................529 9.2 Types of Tool Wear.................................................530 9.3 Measurement of Tool Wear...........................................537 9.4 Tool Wear Mechanisms...............................................538 9.5 Tool Wear: Material Considerations.................................541 9.6 Tool Life Testing..................................................548 9.7 Tool Life Equations................................................549 9.8 Prediction of Tool Wear Rates......................................551 9.9 Tool Fracture and Edge Chipping....................................554 9.10 Drill Wear and Breakage............................................556 9.11 Thermal Cracking and Tool Fracture in Milling......................560 9.12 Tool Wear Monitoring...............................................561 9.13 Examples...........................................................562 9.14 Problems...........................................................568 References................................................................569 Chapter 10 Surface Finish, Integrity, and Flatness.....................................575 10.1 Introduction.......................................................575 10.2 Measurement of Surface Finish......................................576 10.2.1 Stylus Measurements.......................................576 10.2.2 Other Methods.............................................581 10.3 Surface Finish in Turning and Boring...............................582 10.4 Surface Finish in Milling..........................................586 10.5 Surface Finish in Drilling and Reaming.............................590 10.6 Surface Finish in Grinding.........................................590 10.7 Residual Stresses in Machined Surfaces.............................592 10.8 White Layer Formation..............................................594 10.9 Surface Burning in Grinding........................................595 10.10 Measurement of Surface Flatness....................................597 10.11 Surface Flatness Compensation in Face Milling......................599 10.11.1 Tool Path Direction Compensation..........................600 10.11.2 Depth of Cut Compensation.................................603 10.11.3 Tool Feed Compensation....................................605 X \_ll ItC-l ?? 10.11.4 Spindle-Parl Tilt Compensation.............................606 10.11.5 Surface Flatness Compensation Methods Characteristics......608 10.12 Examples.............................................................609 10.13 Problems.............................................................618 References..................................................................618 Chapter 11 Machinability of Materials..................................................623 11.1 Introduction.........................................................623 11.2 Machinability Criteria, Tests, and Indices...........................623 11.3 Chip Control.........................................................627 11.4 Burr Formation and Control...........................................633 11.5 Machinability of Engineering Materials...............................638 11.5.1 Magnesium Alloys...........................................638 11.5.2 Aluminum Alloys............................................640 11.5.3 Metal Matrix Composites....................................642 11.5.4 Copper Alloys..............................................643 11.5.5 Cast Iron..................................................644 11.5.6 Carbon and Low Alloy Steels................................647 11.5.7 Stainless Steels...........................................650 11.5.8 Powder Metal (P/M) Materials...............................652 11.5.9 Titanium Alloys............................................653 11.5.10 Nickel Alloys..............................................654 11.5.11 Depleted Uranium Alloys....................................656 References..................................................................657 Chapter 12 Machining Dynamics..........................................................665 12.1 Introduction.........................................................665 12.2 Vibration Analysis Methods...........................................665 12.3 Vibration of Discrete (Lumped Mass) Systems..........................666 12.3.1 Single Degree-of-Frcedom (SDOF) Systems....................668 12.3.2 Multiple Degree-of-Freedom (MDOF) Systems..................673 12.4 Types of Machine Tool Vibration......................................678 12.5 Forced Vibration.....................................................680 12.6 Self-Excited Vibrations (Chatter)....................................683 12.6.1 Regenerative Chatter, Prediction of Stability Charts (Lobes).684 12.6.2 Tlustý’s Theory............................................687 12.6.3 Shear Plane Method.........................................694 12.6.4 Other Methods..............................................695 12.6.5 Nonregeneralive Chatter, Mode Coupl i ng...................698 12.7 Chatter Prediction...................................................700 12.7.1 Experimental Machine Tool Vibration Analysis...............701 12.7.2 Measurement of Transfer Functions..........................702 12.8 Vibration Control....................................................706 12.8.1 Stiffness Improvement......................................706 12.8.2 Isolation..................................................707 12.8.3 Damping and Dynamic Absorption.............................707 12.8.4 Tool Design................................................709 12.8.5 Variation of Process Parameters............................709 Contents XI 12.9 Active Vibration Control.............................................710 12.10 Examples............................................................716 12.11 Problems............................................................739 References.................................................................743 Chapter 13 Machining Economics and Optimization.....................................751 13.1 Introduction.........................................................751 13.2 Role of a Computerized Optimization System...........................753 13.3 Economic Considerations..............................................755 13.4 Optimization of Machining Systems: Basic Factors..........756 13.5 Optimization of Machining Conditions..................................757 13.6 Formulation of the Optimization Problem..............................758 13.6.1 Formulation of Objective Function.............................758 13.6.2 Constraints..................................................761 13.6.3 Problem Statement............................................763 13.7 Optimization Techniques..............................................764 13.7.1 Single-Pass Operation.........................................764 13.7.2 Multipass Operation..........................................764 13.7.3 Single-Station Multifunctional System (SSMS).................765 13.7.4 Multistage Machining System..................................765 13.7.5 Cutting Tool Replacement Strategies..........................766 13.7.6 Cutting Tool Strategies for Multifunctional Part Configurations................................................767 13.8 Examples.............................................................768 13.9 Problems.............................................................776 References.................................................................777 Chapter 14 Cutting Fluids...........................................................783 14.1 I ntroduction........................................................783 14.2 Types of Cutting Fluids..............................................784 14.2.1 Neat Oils.....................................................784 14.2.2 Water-Based Fluids...........................................784 14.2.3 Gaseous Fluids...............................................786 14.2.4 Air-Oil Mists (Aerosols).....................................787 14.2.5 Cryogenic Fluids.............................................788 14.3 Coolant Application..................................................788 14.4 Filtering............................................................789 14.5 Condition Monitoring and Waste Treatment..........................794 14.6 Health and Safety Concerns...........................................795 14.6.1 Toxicity......................................................796 14.6.2 Dermatitis...................................................796 14.6.3 Respiratory Disorders........................................796 14.6.4 Microbial Infections.........................................796 14.6.5 Cancer.......................................................797 14.7 Dry and Near-Dry Machining Methods...................................797 14.8 Test Procedure for Cutting Fluid Evaluation..........................798 References.................................................................798 xii Contents Chapter 15 Minimum Quantity Lubrication..............................................803 15.1 Introduction.......................................................803 15.2 MQL System Types...................................................803 15.2.1 External and Internal Mist Delivery.........................804 15.2.2 One- and Two-Channel MQL Systems............................805 15.3 MQL Oils...........................................................809 15.4 Machine Tools for MQL..............................................810 15.5 MQL Cutting Tools..................................................812 15.6 Thermal Management and Dimensional Control.........................817 15.7 Air and Chip Handling..............................................818 15.8 MQL Research Areas.................................................819 15.8.1 Hard Alloy Machining and Grinding...........................819 15.8.2 Alternative Carrying Gases and Cooling Strategies...........820 15.8.3 MQL Process Modeling........................................820 15.8.4 Oil Additives and Ionic Fluids..............................821 References...............................................................822 Chapter 16 Accuracy and Error Compensation of CNC Machining Systems.................827 16.1 Introduction.......................................................827 16.2 Machine Tool Errors................................................828 16.3 Machine Tool Accuracy Characterization.............................837 16.4 Machine Tool Performance Evaluation................................839 16.5 Method for Compensating the Dimensional Accuracy of CNC Machining System...................................................865 16.5.1 Error Reduction and Compensation Strategies.................865 16.5.2 Error Modeling Methods......................................872 16.5.3 Error Compensation Offset Methods...........................877 16.6 Examples...........................................................882 References...............................................................889 Chapter 17 Gear Machining...........................................................897 17.1 Introduction.......................................................897 17.2 Gear Types and Geometry............................................897 17.2.1 Gear Types..................................................897 17.2.2 Gear Geometry and Accuracy Classes..........................898 17.3 Tooth Machining Methods for Parallel Axis Gears....................900 17.3.1 Broaching...................................................901 17.3.2 Form Milling................................................904 17.3.3 Hobbing.....................................................905 17.3.4 Shaping.....................................................907 17.3.5 Form Grinding from the Solid................................909 17.4 Bevel and Hypoid Gear Machining....................................909 17.4.1 Peripheral Milling..........................................910 17.4.2 Face Milling................................................912 17.4.3 Face Hobbing................................................913 17.5 Five-Axis Machining of Gears.......................................914 17.5.1 Parallel Axis Gears.........................................915 17.5.2 Bevel Gears.................................................916 Contents xiii 17.6 Gear Tooth Finishing Methods...........................................917 17.6.1 Shaving.......................................................917 17.6.2 Skiving (Hard Finishing)......................................919 17.6.2.1 Skiving: Hard Recutting Processes....................919 17.6.2.2 Skiving: Other Processes.............................920 17.6.3 Grinding......................................................920 17.6.3.1 Form Grinding........................................921 17.6.3.2 Indexing Generating Grinding.........................922 17.6.3.3 Continuous Generating Grinding.......................923 17.6.4 Honing........................................................924 17.6.5 Lapping.......................................................925 References..................................................................926 Index................................................................................... 933
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